Materials

I have to calculate the efficiency for my soil sample, but Angle does not give me soil as an option when choosing source material. What should I do?

You can define any custom material, as long as you know its composition data and density. When choosing the material, choose “Something else” option and define your custom material. You will be prompted to save it to disk, if you want, to be able to re-use it later.

The reason Angle does not offer “soil” as a typical source material is because of the diversity of soil types, the composition of which varies considerably – so it is up to the user to define it.

How is sample humidity accounted for in material composition?

The safest way is to have dry samples, without any humidity. In the case of humidity, the quantity (in %) should be known and simply entered in the material composition (choose: mixture of compounds, with water being one of them with appropriate mass percentage).

How can I define my material?

Depending on the material, it can be defined in three ways: as a mixture of elements (you have to define element symbols and mass percentages), as a compound (you have to define element symbols and number of atoms) and as mixture of compounds (you have to define each compound separately and the mass share percentage). In either case you have to define the density of your material and the material name. You can save the material to disk for later use.

I defined the parameters for sulphuric acid mixture a few days ago. In the meantime I used other materials and now I need it again, for another calculation. Do I have to define the material again?

No, if you previously saved your material to disk. Simply click on “Something else” when choosing the material, click the “Load saved material” button and select the material you saved.

Another, more flexible way to select the previously saved material is by using the pop-up menu, which you can open by clicking the “Source material” label in the “Source” group of the main window. Choose the option “Saved materials” and select the previously saved material from the sub-menu.

How accurately I need to know the material composition?

The more accurately you know it, the better, because this information is input for gamma-attenuation calculations. However, minor constituents (e.g. trace elements) in the material do not contribute considerably in this sense and can be easily omitted if not known. In any particular case, you may verify (by trial calculations) how the absence/presence or concentration variation of a given component is reflected in your final result.

How can I measure the density of the material?

You simply measure the mass and the volume, and the density is the ratio of the two. Pay attention to enter density in g/cm3 when defining the material(s) in Angle.

Can I simply type in the chemical formula of my material?

Yes. In Angle 4 you can enter the compound using the chemical formula – simply type it in the “Chemical formula” box and Angle will automatically break it down to element symbols and the numbers of atoms.